Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro


Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro, Ghulam Shah Kalhoro, Shah Wardi Khan: ميان غلام شاه كلهوره المعرووف شاه وردي خان, was a ruler of the Kalhora Dynasty of Sindh whose rule began in 1762, when he was appointed ruler of Sindh by a royal decree, with the title of Shah Wardí Khan. He brought stability in Sindh after the rule of Main Noor Mohammad Kalhoro, he reorganized the province and independently defeated the Marathas and their prominent vassal the Rao of Kuch in the Thar Desert and returned victoriously.

Early life
Was close relative of Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro, he a had fought the forces of Nadir Shah when they invaded Sindh after the sons of Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro were taken hostage to Persia, he remained the only relevant heir of the Kalhoro Dynasty.

In the year 1763AD/1176AH on the 9th of Rabi-Sani, Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro led his Sindhi forces and marched beyond the Thar Desert towards the Rann of Kutch in order to stop the advance of the Maratha, Rao of Kuchh. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro and his Sindhi forces armed with gunpowder killed about 6000 zealous Hindu warriors during the Battle of Bhuj. Continuing his victorious march he entered the massive Hindu fort of Bhuj, plundering the villages and towns in the vicinity of that Hindu stronghold. He took the sea-ports of Busta and Lakhpat. After a favorable peace treaty, the Sindhi forces consolidated their position and thus expanding the realm of Sindh. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro, arrived at Sháhpúr on the 2nd of Rajjib 1177AH/1764AD after his long and arduous campaign in the arid and dry region.

However in 1178AH/1765AD the Rao of Kuch violated the treaty and attacked Sindhi forces, Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro again invaded the Kutch and took the fortified town of Moru on his way. Upon hearing this the Rao of Kuch fled deeper into Deccan. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro dispatched a Sindhi Musketeer contengen to aid the Muslim Forces during the Third battle of Panipat. Therefore after the final defeat of the Marathas during Third battle of Panipat, the Mughal Emperor bestowed the title Shams Ad-Dawlah (Son of the Empire) upon Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro.

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