Flood management technical methods for pakistan

(Sardar Qaddafi, Abbottabad)

Floods are almost annual events in Pakistan. Pakistan has been experiencing floods mainly because of its topography, Sind, Kabul and swat are three hazard prone rivers, and due to climatic and ecological condition, Pakistan constantly received flooding every year. This is not a matter of concern every year. However, when floods exceed normal flooding level, they take dangerous turns. Many times in the history of Pakistan, floods took severe and sometimes catastrophic turns. In the past Pakistan experienced severe floods in 1973, 1992, 2006 and 2010. But 2010 flood breaks all past records. Latest Government estimates put the number of people directly affected by the floods at 15.4 million, and the number continues to rise (National and Provincial Disaster Management Authorities, 16 August).
Assessments to establish the degree to which affected populations are in need of immediate humanitarian assistance continue. The official death toll has risen to 1,402, with 2,024 people reported as injured. Over
893,000 houses are now reported to have been either damaged or destroyed.

Pakistan is one of the most natural disaster-prone countries in the World. Natural disasters often result in great losses, both in terms of materials and people’s lives.
Due to its unique geo-climatic conditions, Pakistan is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world. Four provinces, AJK and Gilgit baltastan are vulnerable to one or the other geo-climatic disaster. Over 40% of landmass is vulnerable to earthquakes, 6% to cyclone, 60% to floods and 25% of the Barani land under cultivation is vulnerable to drought.
2010 extreme floods results the loss in terms of lives and assets have been incalculable. A disaster wipes out the gains achieved in decades of development in the affected area. Repeated disasters threaten sustainable development in Pakistan Disasters destroy decades of human effort and investments, thereby placing new demands on society for reconstruction and rehabilitation.
. If one adds the losses in countries like Pakistan, where most of the property of the people, especially in the rural areas remains uninsured, the losses are astronomical.
The unique geo-environmental setting of the North Himalayas, the heavy rainfall, weak geological formations, accelerated rates of erosion followed by silting and meandering of rivers, very high seismicity makes the Northern area one of the most disaster prone regions in the country. Considering this, and the comparative inaccessibility, the North region demands special attention to minimize loss of lives and social, private and community losses and to ensure sustainable development.
Vulnerability to natural disasters combined with socio-economic vulnerability of the people pose a great challenge to the government machinery.

Disasters in Pakistan
Pakistan is confronting series of disasters in recent past, 2005 earth quake, Hunza land slide, air blue crash, and 2010 Floods, are major disasters. These disasters have different type and onset but resulted huge damage to life and property .Pakistan is facing different problems like terrorism, political uncertainty which badly affected the government and its institutions capacity.
Government of Pakistan after 2005 earth quake establish a authority for disaster management but due to lack of technical knowledge and manpower the authority fail to play its role effectively while coping these disasters, there is an urgent need to built the capacity of this authority and also clearly lay down its bylaws and mandate , NDMA think that its role is only to regulatory which is totally wrong perception, the role of any National disaster management authority all over the world is to regulate ,coordinate , develop systems and train technically manpower for disaster management.

Disaster management in Pakistan
Disaster management is multidimensional field and required technical knowledge to get job done ,army can not manage disaster , army can manage war and law and order ,the only role army can play in disaster management is that they can respond to post disaster phase for rescue , relief and recovery on request , but here we misuse army in disaster management which not only kept them away from their original task but also put extra burden on armed forces, in spite from the fact that army play a exceilent and efficient role in all national calamities , on other hand it also indicate weakness in NDMA ,which is responsible to provide technical assistance to other government agencies in disaster management, But we witness that due to lack of technical knowledge and techniques we suffer maximum damages in term of life and property, e.g. in Air Blue crash the plane caught by fire for many hours and rescue workers reached the spot in minimum possible time but they fail to control the fire and rescue the victims because they don’t have fire fighting knowledge ,this fire can easily be controlled if they put green bushes on fire which is very effective instrument in absence of water, these green bushes are wild and extensively available at crash spot ,but we let the bodies burn to ashes ,secondly I also observed the search operation for black box which was also conducted in nonprofessional manners ,CDA worker and other common people are exploring the area like doges exploring bones outside the butcher shop and official called its search operation which is purely technical think and done through scientific methods.
These type of searches must be carried out by train searchers according to search methods(triage search or up to down left to right search) and with the support of magnetic rods which identified black box and this type of search is called electronic search ,which is correct and scientific method of search. I think that we can safe life of the people if we have trained USAR team for future emergencies.

Due to frequent occurrence of disasters induced by natural hazards, the National disaster management authority(NDMA), which has been given the responsibility and mandate for coordinating national disaster management efforts across all agencies. The newly born authority fails to develop system across the country to handle disaster at national level .
Training and capacity building of the officials dealing with emergencies would be an important instrument of disaster reduction and recovery. While natural hazards cannot be controlled, the vulnerability to these Hazards can be reduced by planned mitigation and preparedness measures. There needs to be concerted and sustained steps towards reducing the vulnerability of the community to disasters.

Importance of disaster management
Taking into consideration the value of development gains which are wiped out through disasters, as also the huge quantum of funds required for post disaster relief and rehabilitation, any investment in disaster mitigation will yield a higher rate of return than any other development project. Also considering the developmental gains, which are wiped out because of disasters, all development schemes/projects will need to incorporate disaster assessment and vulnerability reduction as critical components in order that the development process be sustainable. Therefore, a paradigm shift has now taken place with the shift in focus from reactive to proactive i.e. from relief to prevention and mitigation of disasters.

NDMA National
PDMA Provincial
DDMA District

Many houses and bridges have been destroyed due to flash flooding and also, due to the water accompanied debris, which mostly consists of timber logs, tree branches and uprooted trees of different sizes. The mass of debris has been created by destabilization of slope, the sub soil layer and vegetation over the same which is transported by the floodwaters. Mountainous watershed systems in northern Pakistan collectively send water to rivers leading downstream areas.

The city of Noshera and few other urban areas of Punjab and Sind located in the flood plain of the swat and Sind Rivers badly destroyed by floodwater associated with heavy rain. The urban area is located in the catchments, In Noshera city debris flow and flooding caused damages and losses to shops, commercial centers and house hold items such as furniture, electronic items so on. The city transportation system, water supply, sewerage and drainage systems were also subjected to severe destruction or failure in functioning.

Consequences of poor disaster management
2005 earth quake is fast onset disaster, all damages are natural and one can not criticized government or any authority because in fast onset disaster damage to life and property can not be minimized by any mean, 2010 flood is slow onset disaster in which damage to life and property is failure of NDMA and government of Pakistan because in slow onset disaster damages can be minimized if a country have system in place (like early warning system, hazard assessment, risk calculation etc). Political differences amongst federal and provincial governments leading the Flood 2010 disaster toward complex disaster.
If government of Pakistan and international community fail to manage or poorly managed 2010 flood disaster then it will resulted dire consequences for Pakistan and rest of the world .If we calculate the amount of damage, magnitude and spread of this disaster, there is a immediate need to manage this disaster properly, if serious steps will not be taken by Government, UN and donor countries the situation will create complex disaster which later on change into second disaster which not only affect Pakistan but the whole civilized world.

Complex Disasters-
Complex disasters exist where adverse political conditions compound a disaster or emergency situation. Such situations are complicated because the breakdown of the political structure makes assistance or intervention difficult. This sort of emergency is usually associated with the problems of displaced people during times of civil conflict or with people in need caught in areas of conflict.

The actual disaster results in a lot of damage to the population in terms of loss of life and property. This direct result can be dubbed as the ‘first disaster’. The impact of the first disaster sends another wave of damage triggered by chain of events relating to the first disaster by means of cause-and-effect, resulting in indirect damage to people remote from the original disaster. This can be called the ‘second disaster’. For example, tsunami had caused loss in terms of life, damage to houses, etc. This is the first disaster. This leads to disruption in the trade of fishing industries, which suffers massive financial losses. The losses suffered by these industries results in lower wages and salaries to those involved in the fishing business. These people cannot repay their loans, resulting in losses to money lenders, and so on. Such events can also result in higher incidences of Looting robberies civil war, heart attacks, strokes, suicides and homicides. This is called ‘second disaster’ and can be in greater magnitude than the ‘first disaster’. Proper rehabilitation and care of the victims of first disaster can break the chain of events leading to the second disaster.
NDMA must prepare national disaster plan for flood victims to avoid above stated situations and also centralized all disaster management activities for effective recovery at national level and setup national early warning system, Hazard assessment, and Risk and hazard mapping for minimizing damages in any future event. Apart from an effective disaster response system, it is important to have a good flood prevention and mitigation system to achieve objectives of vulnerability reduction.

Supportive Technologies
A number of tools are available to array and display information for the use of technical experts, to explain programmes of flood damage reduction to the decision-makers, and to communicate real time forecasts and warnings to the public. In general the tools should be interactive in the sense that the information can be easily updated, and flexible enough to develop scenarios, and to provide visual and quantitative information regarding the state of conditions during the forecasted event.


The message suggests awareness that flooding is possible within the next24 hours The message suggests preparedness and that flooding is threatening within the next 12 hours The message prompts response as flooding is expected to occur/or will persist within the next 12hours.

To minimize flood damage the basic approach is to prevent flood waters from reaching the damage vulnerable centers. The Flood Forecasting Network sends information to all the major flood prone inter-Provincial river basins in the country. Information from satellites is used for mapping and monitoring flood prone areas. The Flood commissioner under the Ministry of Water issues flood forecasts and Warnings. A flood alert is issued well in advance of the actual arrival of floods to enable People to take appropriate measures and shift to safer places.
Despite this, floods continue to be a menace primarily because of the huge quantum of silt, which has raised the bed level in many rivers. During high floods, many breaches occur, causing inundation over vast areas for most of the monsoon months of June to September. The country thus needs a better and effective flood mitigation system to ensure the safety of its people and economy.

Who is Responsible for damages?
2010 floods are historical in term of magnitude and spread out, Pakistan is exposed to floods almost every year but the recent floods breaks all records of the past, If we put bird eye view on and affected area we see that amount of damage is maximum in term of property and livelihood, If we calculate damages ,first of all food basket of the country completely destroyed ,loss of livelihood ,loss of infrastructure. These damages can not be recovered or rehabilitated in short period of time by any mean, these damages are irrecoverable and irreversible, e.g. The soil of fertile basin plate of Indus River badly polluted and overlapped by flood salty mud which can not be removed shortly, this type of damage can create drought in country.

(1) Governments of Pakistan is responsible for Immoveable property and livelihood damages.
As a disaster manager I agree from the fact that in floods damages to moveable property can not be minimized by any mean but we can mitigate the risk of a hazard in pre flood period.
Past and present Governments of Pakistan are responsible to Irrecoverable Damage to food basket or Indus basin plate of Pakistan ,because this damage can be minimized if government of Pakistan built Dams which is best instrument of flood control , Sind river is biggest in water flow but its water never ever generate floods because of Terbela dam which capacitated large amount of water and utilized for energy and irrigation purposes in spite from the fact that sind river have large potential of flood creation, Swat and kabal rivers generated flood because there water is unchecked or free in flow, technically both rivers must have dams for control over its water and flow but due to lack of technical knowledge ,mindless politics and poor planning of government of Pakistan and its concern institutions which not only push the country in darkness butt also destroyed its only god gifted agriculture resource.
(2)NDMA is responsible for damages to Life and moveable property.
In disaster manger eyes NDMA is responsible for damages to life and immoveable property ,Because flood is slow onset disaster not a fast onset disaster, which give enough time to Authorities for preparation and mitigation ,if NDMA have national disaster management strategy in place which includes (countrywide early warning system ,emergency management plan, Hydro meteorological hazards assessment, Structural / non-structural measures, , Environmental impact assessment, Environmental degradation assessment, Forecast ) damages can be minimized ,but due to lack of technical management and preplanning the whole country exposed to floods resulted damages to life and property of people ,on the other hand government and army also faced hard time in rescue and relief due to sudden occurrence. This poor management of flood raises questions in mind of international community that Pakistan suffers huge damages to life and property in slow onset disaster due to mismanagement .
People of Pakistan are already suffering from poverty and energy crisis, now lost their bread and butter .Being a disaster manager we know that the impact of flood disaster is more destructive then earth quake, In earth quake damages are bi end while in floods damages are uni- end (bi-end life and property, uni-end only property).
In earth quake people last there life, in floods people losses their livelihood and property so they demanded more resources and compensation and disaster of this nature need much resources and money for rehabilitation as compare to earth quake ,because population remain same and resources reduced.

Potential Flood Hazard in Pakistan
I think that we have manpower and instrument but due to lack of technical knowledge we suffer damages in disasters, Flood mitigation is not difficult task ,it can be managed properly through flood mitigation system, In Pakistan we have three potential Flood Hazard Moon soon rains, Northern glaciers and Dams Firstly the country is more commonly exposed and vulnerable to moon soon rains which are predictable and come periodically ,With modern satellite weather forecast we can take affective measures to minimize its damages, because in floods only immovable property and crops are vulnerable and people , livestock and moveable property can be saved ,but here we suffer maximum damages in flood and turn whole country in to disaster, we must have early warning system which can inform vulnerable community about hazard ,secondly we must have Hazard assessment like amount of water in rivers , river delta capacity and the water spread area, forecast through which these damages can be minimized.
Second potential hazards are Terbela, Mangla dams, which due to any sudden event can create Flood disaster, for this type of hazard we must educate those people whose are vulnerable in downstream area about risk and hazard (e.g. Everybody must have boat or tire tubes according to house hold size), this type of risk reduction tools save life of people.

Third Northern glaciers
Melting of glaciers in northern Pakistan due to global warming is also potential hazard, this hazard can generate flood in Pakistan .we can reduce its affect by constructing Dam in northern area Factors behind flood in Pakistan.

(1) Environmental degradation
Environmental degradation is major factor behind floods in Pakistan
Potential effects are varied and may contribute to an increase in vulnerability and the frequency and intensity of natural hazards.
Some examples: land degradation, deforestation, desertification, wild land fires, loss of biodiversity, land, water and air pollution, climate change, sea level rise and ozone depletion.

(2)Global warming
Global warming is an other major factor of floods in Pakistan, Developed industrial states and wild fires contributing major share in global warming which resulted heavy and long spell rains, melting of snow, raise in sea level, storms and floods, in my view moon soon rains are annually fall but this time the unpredictable increase in rain fall is due to global warming resulted flood in Pakistan e.g. recent wild fire in Russia resulted heavy and large scale rains in Pakistan resulted flood.

A flood is a situation in which water temporarily covers land where it normally doesn’t. This water comes from the sea, lakes, rivers, canals or sewers. It can also be rainwater. Floods can be described according to speed (flash flood), geography or cause of flooding.
Floods are among the most common and destructive natural hazards causing extensive damage to infrastructure, public and private services, the environment, the economy and devastation to human settlements. Recurring flood losses have handicapped the economic development of both developed and developing countries. Floods usually are local, short-lived events that can happen suddenly and sometimes with little or no warning. They usually are caused by intense storms that produce more runoff than an area can store or a stream can carry within its normal channel. Rivers can also flood its surroundings when the dams fail, when ice or a landslide temporarily block the course of the river channel, or when snow melts rapidly. In a broader sense, normally dry lands can be flooded by high lake levels, by high tides, or by waves driven ashore by strong winds. Small streams are subject to floods (very rapid increases in runoff), which may last from a few minutes to a few hours. On larger streams, floods usually last from several hours to a few days. A series of storms might keep a river above flood stage (the water level at which a river overflows its banks) for several weeks.


Level 4 (The River at a Particular reference point is about 40% full)
Level 6 (The river at a particular reference point is about 60% full)
Level 10 (The River at a particular reference point is 100% full)

However, all floods are not alike. Some floods develop slowly, sometimes over a period of days. But flash floods can develop quickly, sometimes in just a few minutes and without any visible signs of rain. Flash floods often have a dangerous wall of roaring water that carries rocks, mud, and other debris and can sweep away most things in its path. Overland flooding occurs outside a defined river or stream, such as when a levee is breached, but still can be destructive. Flooding can also occur when a dam breaks, producing effects similar to flash floods.
Flood types
Flash floods
Coastal floods
Urban floods
River (or fluvial) floods
Ponding (or pluvial flooding)
Flood has always been a annual phenomenon in Pakistan , According to the MET department Government of Pakistan, around 75% of the total rainfall is concentrated over 4 months of monsoon (June – September) and, as a result almost all the rivers carry heavy discharge during these four months.. The most flood prone area is the Indus basins. The whole country is vulnerable to floods includes Gilgit Baltastan, KPK, Punjab, Sind, Baluchistan and AJK. But of recent 2010 floods breaks all past records,

Lists of simple things one can do to stay safe and protect one from floods.

Before flooding occurs
1. Know the route to the nearest safe shelters that you area aware off.
2. Keep the First Aid Kit ready with extra medication for snake bite and diarrhea
3. Strong ropes for tying things
4. A radio, torch and spare batteries
5. Stocks of fresh water, dry food, candles, matchbox, kerosene etc
6. Umbrellas and bamboo sticks (to protect from snakes)
7. Higher ground where people and animals can take shelter

When you hear a flood warning
1. Tune in to your radio or watch for warning and advice
2. Keep vigil of flood warning given by local authorities
3. Keep dry food and drinking water and warm clothes ready
4. Check your emergency kit

If you need to evacuate
1. Pack clothing, essential medication, valuables, personal papers etc in water proof bags to be taken to the safe shelter.
2. Raise furniture, appliances on beds and tables
3. Put sandbags in the toilet bowl and cover all drain holes to prevent sewage back flow.
4. Do not get into water of unknown depth and current
5. Lock your house and take the recommended or known evacuation routes for your area of safe shelter.

During Floods
1. Drink boiled water or use halogen tablet to purify water before drinking.
2. Keep your food covered
3. Do not let children remain on empty stomach
4. Use bleaching powder and lime to disinfect the surroundings
5. Avoid entering flood waters. If you need to enter then were proper foot wear.
6. Stay away from water over knee level.

After a Flood
1. Stay tuned to local radio.
2. Do not allow children to play in, or near, flood waters.
3. Stay away from drains, culverts.
4. Do not use electrical appliances.
5. Do not eat food, which has been in floodwaters.
6. Boil tap water.
7. Use halogen tablets before drinking.
8. be careful of snake bites, snakebites are common during floods.

Flood Resistance and Resilience measures

Flood Resistance and Resilience
Where buildings must be located in areas with medium to high levels of flood risk, the incorporation of flood resistance and resilience at the design stage can reduce the impacts should inundation occur. Standard measures include the provision of a minimum freeboard above ground or predicted flood level, and the use of resilient fixtures and fittings within.
Flood resistance measures include:
• Fitting one way valves to sewage pipes, or the use of temporary bungs;
• Sump and pump systems to remove water from buildings faster than it enters; and
• Temporary door or air vent flood boards to stop the entry of flood water.

Flood resilience measures include:
• Use of concrete floors rather than timber;
• Location of boilers, and electrical above the possible flood level;
• No chipboard or MDF, instead using plastic and metal alternatives; and
• Lime plaster or cement render rather than conventional gypsum plaster.
Retrofitting flooded properties during the repair procedure with these is common practice.
These measures are not necessarily more expensive than conventional techniques, but will significantly reduce the damage, cost and time to repair if properties are flooded.

Future Proofing
It is important that new developments, particularly in the higher flood risk zones, are future proofed against uncertainty. Therefore it is advised that proposed flood mitigation measures associated with developments are reviewed at the detailed FRA stage, paying attention to the potential implications of future changes in climate and land use. The application of the precautionary principle and the provision of freeboard and flood resistance and resilience in buildings can mitigate future increases in flood risk at relatively low cost at the design and construction stage.
Other Measures
Measures to mitigate the risks of flooding both to and from development are not necessarily limited to those above. Depending on the specific risks relating to a site, the following investigations / options may need further consideration at the detailed FRA stage of development planning:
• Flood resistance / resilience measures specific to the potential for groundwater flooding;
• Management of surface ‘run-on’ (i.e. runoff entering the site from upslope areas) as part of the development’s drainage strategy;
• Maintenance / improvement of watercourses, culverts, drain and sewerage networks to reduce associated flood risks.

Flood Preparedness Planning
Flood preparedness planning is about putting in place a set of appropriate arrangements in advance for an effective response to floods. Some of the commonly identified flood preparedness activities are:
• Public awareness rising on flood preparedness, response and mitigation measures;
• Stockpiling of emergency relief materials i.e., food, fodder for livestock, emergency medicines, materials for temporary shelter etc;
• Installation of community-based early warning system for issuance of timely and effective flood warnings;
• Management of safe areas for temporary removal of people and property from a threatened location;
• Transportation to safe areas/ evacuation centre;
• Ensuring access to health and sanitation facilities;
• Conducting drills and rehearsals.

The key to flood preparedness planning is to have a clarity and agreement on the roles and responsibilities of relevant stakeholders such as the government line agencies, disaster management organizations, Red Cross, voluntary groups as well as community members. Such an arrangement is possible by forming disaster management authorities and teams at various levels to agree on set of standard operating procedures (SOPs) defining what actions to be taken before, during and after floods.

Flood preparedness Planning
• Systematic arrangement and deployment of resources to reduce the impact of flood disaster;
• Vulnerable communities to get access to crucial information, such as timely flood forecasts and warnings;
• The provision of basic needs, such as shelter and medical care, clean water, sanitation and food during floods;
• Continued access to livelihoods, in order to minimize disruption of economic activities;
• Effective coordination among disaster management agencies to ensure efficient emergency response during floods;
• Urgent restoration of critical infrastructure and measures to be taken to bring normalcy immediately after the floods.

A flood preparedness plan (FPP) which is an integral component of the multi-hazard disaster management plan, is an action oriented document detailing specific actions to be undertaken prior to floods, which set the ground for effective execution of emergency response and recovery activities during and after floods.

The components of a FPP:
1. Assessment of probable needs: Based on historical data from previous flood disasters, officials at the State and district levels compile a list of likely needs and available resources. Gaps between needs and resources are identified in advance and also ways to mobilize them.
2. Institutional Mechanism for implementation of FPP: The Flood Preparedness Plan outlines the institutional structure of the States, District or Community level Committees for Disaster Management, its roles and responsibilities before, during and after floods. The Plan also establishes the coordination among the line agencies and other stakeholders in implementation of priority activities identified in the plan.
3. Activating early warning and disaster response systems: The FPP defines how to warn the whole community, based on the forecast received from the national and regional agencies and what they should do in advance. The plan ensures ways of involving all stakeholders, according to their roles and responsibilities, and outlines these in the plan.
4. Resource mobilization and allocation. Responding to a flood requires resources; therefore the plan specifies what resources are already available at the State, district, community and village levels. The plan also specifies what resources will be needed and where to find those resources.
5. Communication within and outside the community. To ensure clear and effective messages in an emergency, the plan specifies how communication will take place and via what media (radio or indigenous systems, etc.)
6. Sectoral components. A flood preparedness plan outlines standard operating procedures (SOPs) for specific measures such as search & rescue, emergency medical assistance, provision of water supply and sanitation, food and nutrition, logistics and transport, health, agriculture and environment management, temporary shelter, evacuation procedures; protection and security.

Implementation Arrangement of the Flood Control and Search & Rescue Plan at all levels.

a. Coordination among Line Agencies
b. Sectoral Plan development Infrastructure Restoration
c. Search and Rescue
d. Relief and Social Policies
e. Health, Education and Environment
f. Information and Communication
g. Reporting scheme
h and Report formats
i. Dissemination of the Plan

Roles and Responsibility of Line Agencies at Province, District, Cities in three phases of Flood
a. Agriculture

b. Transport
c. Education
d. Committee of Population
e. Construction
f. Health
g. Electricity & Water
h. .Post, Radio and Television
i Industry:
j. Hydrometeorology station
k Police
l. Armed forces
m. Red Cross
n. Labor, invalids and social affairs:

. Immediate and Long-Term Measure for Flood, Storm Control, Search and Rescue Planning in the Province
a. Safety for infrastructure
b. Protection of Agriculture production
c. Exploit the advantage of flood management programs
d. Ensure safety for people, particularly, households in high risk areas
e. Measures for storing food, medicine, equipments, and materials
f. Plan to mobilize military forces and transportation to be ready to respond to natural disaster situations
g. Policies to support people to overcome the impact of natural disaster
h. Invest to enhance the flood, storm forecasting and warning, search and rescue, dyke protection and information dissemination work


a. Hazards
b. Vulnerability analysis
c. Provincial Resources
d. Number of Safe Area and Location
e. Transportation
f. Communication system
g. Human Resources
h. Organizations

Technical guidelines for Management of Floods prone Area and communities
I recommended some technical guidelines to adopt and minimize damages to life and property of flood affected Pakistani citizens.

The capability of communities to monitor and warn people about impending floods is crucial to protecting lives and property. The high cost of telemeter flood forecasting equipment prompts a lot of communities in developing countries to search for cheap but equally effective mechanisms. One such alternative is a community-based flood early warning system (CBFEWS) Flood Warning System consists of two components: flood forecasting as a technical issue and flood warning and dissemination as a communication.

Considerable attention has been given to providing understandable and actionable warnings to target communities. To this end, warning messages have been streamlined with only three different stages (READY, GET SET, and GO) so that the public can easily remember what each signal means.

Almost everyone in the population is affected by a disaster. No one is untouched by it. Those who suffer damage are called victims. The victims may die or live. Those who manage to live are called survivors. These survivors can be classified as.
1. Primary survivor – One who is exposed to the disaster first-hand and then survives. They are called ‘survivor victims’.
2. Secondary survivor – One who grieves the loss of primary victims? Example, a mother who lost her child, or a man who lost his friend.
3. Third level survivor – The rescue and relief personnel. These people are also affected due to the disaster as they are at the site of disaster and undergo almost the same mental trauma as the other victims.
4. Fourth level survivor – Reporters, Government personnel, traders, etc.
5. Fifth level survivor – People who read about or see the event in media reports.

There is a phenomenal increase in the incidence of psychiatric disorders in the Flood affected population. The common problems include
1. Acute stress disorder
2. Post traumatic stress disorder
3. Anxiety disorders
4. Depression
5. Alcohol and drug abuse
Flood Risk mitigation

The notice issued indicating that specific precautions should be taken because of the probability or proximity of a dangerous event.

Emergency management
The organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all aspects of emergencies, in particularly preparedness, response and rehabilitation.
Emergency management involves plans, structures and arrangements established to engage the normal endeavors of government, voluntary and private agencies in a comprehensive and coordinated way to respond to the whole spectrum of emergency needs. This is also known as disaster management.

Hydro meteorological hazards Natural processes or phenomena of atmospheric, hydrological or oceanographic nature, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. Floods bring misery to those that live in the area. They can cause loss of life and often cause a great disruption of daily life: water can come into people’s houses, drinking water and electricity supplies may break down, roads can be blocked, and people can not go to work or to school. Floods all over the world cause enormous damages every year like economic damages, damage to the natural environment and damage to national heritage sites.
A flood is a situation in which water temporarily covers land where it normally doesn’t. This water comes from the sea, lakes, rivers, canals or sewers. It can also be rainwater.
Floods can be described according to speed (flash flood), geography or cause of flooding. Several types of flooding will be described in these pages together with some aspects of hydrology.
• Water cycle
• Water storage
• A little or lots of water (water quantity)
• Rainfall intensity
• Speed (water velocity)
• Catchment area
Hydro meteorological hazards include: floods, debris and mud floods; tropical cyclones, storm surges, thunder/hailstorms, rain and wind storms, blizzards and other severe storms; drought, desertification, wild land fires, temperature extremes, sand or dust storms; permafrost and snow or ice avalanches. Hydro meteorological hazards can be single, sequential or combined in their origin and effects.

The hydrological monitoring system consists of a network of rainfall and water level monitoring stations,
• Assessment of flood hazard and existing flood control structures;
• Identification and verification of locations for rainfall and water level gauges using the network density derived from a topographic map of the river basin;
• Acquisition, fabrication, and installation of rainfall, water level gauges, and flood markers;
• Identification and training of community volunteers as rain and water level observers; and
• Discharge measurement and cross-sectioning of rivers

Risk assessment/analysis A methodology to determine the nature and extent of risk by analyzing potential hazards and evaluating existing conditions of vulnerability that could pose a potential threat or harm to people, property, livelihoods and the environment on which they depend.
The process of conducting a risk assessment is based on a review of both the technical features of hazards such as their location, intensity, frequency and probability; and also the analysis of the physical, social, economic and environmental dimensions of vulnerability and exposure, while taking particular account of the coping capabilities pertinent to the risk scenarios.
Structural / non-structural measures

Structural measures refer to any physical construction to reduce or avoid possible impacts of hazards, which include engineering measures and construction of hazard-resistant and protective structures and infrastructure.(e.g. Dams,).
Non-structural measures refer to policies, awareness, knowledge development, public commitment, and methods and operating practices, including participatory mechanisms and the provision of information, which can reduce risk and related impacts.
Flood Mitigation Strategies:
There are two different ways to mitigate floods: -
1. Structural
2. Non- Structural
Structural measures are in the nature of physical measures and help in “modifying the floods”, while non- structural measures are in the nature of planning and help in “modifying the losses due to floods”. In the structural measures we keep the water away from people and in the non structural measures to try to keep the people away from water. All of these works can be individually divided into long term and short-term measures.
This tailoring of technical information into displays that are more readily understood is valuable for explaining programmes to decision-makers, informed experts, and the public at large. Highly visual information is particularly valuable for public meetings or open houses, but must be tailored carefully for the audience.

Flood Plain Management
Management of activities within the flood prone area can significantly reduce flood damages to existing development and prevent the amount of damages from rising in the future. The most desirable approach is to prohibit new development in the flood plain and to flood proof existing structures, or to replace the existing development by alternative usage of the land. However, where the amount of present development is substantial or the flood plain is essential for the production of food or other key economic activities, alternate strategies such as flood and protection can be considered.

A. Structural Measures
Construction of dams/diversions/storm channels/levees Construction of protective works such as
flood storage reservoirs, diversion of water to side channel storage or other watersheds, construction of storm channels to carry water around the area to be protected, and levees along the floodway provide tools to reduce flood damages. Such works can be constructed to various levels of protection, usually based on: 1) minimum standards for flood protection; 2) the optimum level of costs and benefits based on an economic.
Analysis; or 3) to meet established levels of acceptable risk. Protective works should be considered when major infrastructure has already been developed and costs to protect existing investments are far less than those related to reconstruction, lost economic activity, disaster assistance, or relocation of existing structures and activities. However, it must be recognized that at some point in the future the design event will likely be exceeded and catastrophic damages will result. Levees and storage dams are particularly dangerous when design thresholds are exceeded in that unexpected failure can result in a rapid rise in water level and make evacuation and emergency protection extremely difficult. Diversions or storm channels are less prone to catastrophic failure and the level of protection contemporarily be increased by emergency measures if the lead-time of the flood warning is sufficient. Information must be credible and easily understood. The above techniques, combined with the flood forecast, provide a very effective means of delineating areas at risk and for communicating this to the decision-makers, emergency response teams, and the public.
Flood control storage may be one component of a multi-purpose reservoir development. Over time the operation of the reservoir could be altered to enhance other beneficial uses of storage to the detriment of flood control. A commitment to "designated flood storage" and to reservoir operation procedures to achieve that storage is needed. Inspection, rehabilitation and maintenance Structural works require a periodic and systematic inspection, rehabilitation and maintenance programme to ensure that the design capabilities are maintained. For example, levees may be subject to weakening due to erosion during a past flood event, by the actions of burrowing animals, or the construction of utility lines through the levee. Of particular importance is an inspection programme and responsibility assigned for rehabilitation and maintenance.
Structures such as dams should be subject to a dam safety programme, usually at the national level, to ensure that the specialized expertise required is available for the inspection of all structures. Dam safety programmes are carried out in many countries and standards or guidelines are readily available.

Flood proofing of new and existing structures
Any new construction permitted in the flood plain should be flood proofed to reduce future damages. Building codes can be developed that minimize flood damages by ensuring that beneficial uses of buildings are located above the design flood elevation. For example, buildings can be raised above the design flood level by placement of fill; stilts or piles used to elevate the structure; and building utilities can be located above the flood level (Ground floors can be designed in a way that little flood damage occurs through use of masonry materials and specifying that contents must be removable. If any new development is allowed within the flood-prone area, then the impact of that development must be taken into account to ensure that flood levels do not rise significantly due to the additional constriction to flow. Hydraulic analyses can be undertaken to ascertain the impacts of potential activities and to keep the rise to within acceptable limits Flood proofing of existing structures is difficult and expensive. One successful strategy is to link flood disaster assistance available after a flood event to methods of reconstruction that minimize future flood damages. This approach often requires additional funding over and above a payment for damages, but can be costs hared between various levels of government and the owner. This strategy is particularly useful when flooding is frequent and future disaster assistance can be expected as part of disaster policies. Flood proofing of existing structures can include raising of structures to prevent damage, relocation of utilities, changed building use, installation of protective walls and waterproof closures, and use of materials that are not damaged by water and can be easily cleaned after the flood event. Relocation of existing buildings and structures to an area that is not flood prone is also an option. Buyout and relocation programmes for a particularly vulnerable development should form a component of flood proofing initiatives. In many cases it may be more economical to buy out and relocate the existing use than to protect it. Guidelines for Reducing Flood Losses A number of critical services such as water lines, power pylons and telephone services often cross the flood plain. These utilities can be protected against the ravages of flooding at relatively low cost through additional depth of burial, a higher design standard for exposed components, and rising of components above design flood levels. Water supply and treatment plants are particularly vulnerable. They are often located on the flood plain yet are critical for the protection of human health during and after a flood event. Such structures need to be protected against extreme events and designed to prevent cross-contamination from flood waters or sewers.

Bridges and roads
Bridges generally constrict the flow of water, and they can act as artificial dams if debris jams on the structure. In all cases, the ir hydraulic characteristics must be considered at the design stage to prevent an un acceptable rise of water levels upstream of the structure. Bridges are important in terms of maintaining access for evacuation and delivery of medical and other emergency services. Key transportation corridors should have high design standards that will with stand extreme flooding events. However not all bridges require a high level of protection, and the design criteria can be to a lesser standard that takes into consideration the possibility of overtopping. Bridges are expensive, and difficult to replace quickly after a flood event. An alternative strategy is to design the approach roads to be the weak link in the chain so that extreme events wash out the road but do not damage the bridge. Approaches can be quickly repaired after a flood event and transportation corridors restored. Road design, either parallel to the river or leading to bridges, must be given careful consideration. There is a temptation to raise roads that have been overtopped by flood events without giving adequate consideration to the number and size of openings necessary to pass local drainage or tributary inflow. In such cases the road can artificially raise water levels upstream and cause additional flood damage. Roads can act as levees when they are parallel to the river. This is a two-edged sword: while flood protection is provided, the water level upstream can increase, resulting in additional flood damages there. Hydraulic studies must be undertaken before roads are raised to fully establish the impacts of these activities.

Enforcement of standards and codes
The enforcement of standards and codes for flood-prone areas is as important as the ir initial development. There is a tendency to bend the rules as the memory of a flood event and its catastrophic consequences gradually fade away with time. Enforcement procedures and penalties need to be built into the process, and emergency response drills undertaken to ensure that flood prevention measures such as waterproof closures still work. An audit should be performed by higher orders of government with participation of all interested parties to ensure broad national standards are being met and that codes and rules are being suitably followed and enforced. Governments should consider introducing requirements such as surveyor certificates to verify that design elevations have been met, or inspector reports that flood-proofing measures have been implemented. Lending and insurance institutions could usefully be involved in this process, as they have a vested interest in ensuring that their investments are protected.

B. Non-structural Measures
Non-structural measures are particularly applicable to flood-prone areas that are not yet developed. As such, they are a complement to structural approaches in areas where additional development may occur, and they also represent an independent approach where some control over flood plain development can be exercised at low cost. Non-structural approaches do not mean "no use", but rather" wise use".

Land-use planning
Land-use planning at the local or municipal level can be a useful tool in reducing future flood damages. Consideration should be given to ensuring that there are conforming uses in flood-prone areas as part of master
Guidelines for Reducing Flood Losses plan.

The land along a river is highly desirable for parks and recreational uses, as well as for ecological reserves. Supportive infrastructure such as washrooms, picnic facilities and changing rooms can be flood proofed. Private development of conforming uses such as golf courses can also be considered. The important point here is to integrate the land-use planning for flood prone lands into the broader plans for the urban and surrounding area.

Zoning of flood-prone lands
The best way to reduce future flood damages is to prevent development from occurring on flood-prone lands. Zoning of such lands is an effective approach, but generally should be coupled with the broader land-use planning mentioned above so that the land has a defined use. Zoning can be used to reduce damages from flooding and be flexible enough to recognize that other forms of land use are compatible. An example is agricultural use of lands in flood-prone areas where water velocities are low enough not to cause serious erosion. Flood-prone lands can continue to be used for agricultural purposes, particularly in countries where the amount of agricultural land is limited and self-sufficiency in food supply is a national goal. It is important, however, to ensure that the supporting infrastructure such as buildings and houses are located away from the flood-prone area or flood proofed. It is also important that livestock, machinery or stored crops can be evacuated quickly from the area in the event of a flood. This underscores the importance of a flood forecast, warning and response system. Zoning of flood-prone lands as ecological reserves or protected wetlands can often help to meet broader environmental or biodiversity goals. In addition, such lands often play an important role in sustaining the fishery, and they can also act as temporary storage and infiltration areas. Riparian buffer strips also reduce the movement of agricultural chemicals and nutrients into the aquatic system.

Redevelopment of flood-prone areas
A major flood disaster is sometimes an opportunity to correct the planning errors of the past. Removal of flood-prone development and conversion of the land to a conforming use is an option to consider. It may be less expensive in the long run to physically relocate flood-prone development, buy it out as part of a disaster assistance programme, or include its purchase in long term planning. The success of the latter approach can be enhanced by measures such as prohibiting improvements not required for health and safety, placing caveats on the land title, and by obtaining rights of first refusal on resale. Compensation and incentives Compensation as part of disaster assistance should always have as a goal the reduction of future flood damages. Rather than simply paying for damages, the funds should be focused on flood proofing, buy out, relocation and public education on the risks and consequences of living on flood-prone lands.
In a similar manner, incentives can be developed that encourage flood proofing or relocation, and these can be financed through cost-shared programmes. Here the cost of flood proofing can be shared in proportion to the benefits to the various levels of government of not having to compensate for future flood damages. Property owners should also be expected to pay a reasonable share in view of the enhanced value of a flood-proofed structure and the reduced inconvenience after a flood. Land exchange programmes can be used as an incentive to relocate from flood-prone lands. In such cases a public entity makes alternate land available and disaster assistance is generally used to pay for relocation or replacement of structures, depending on the costs and benefits. Incentives can also take the form of penalties. For example, if an individual is aware of the risk of flooding through such programmes as flood plain delineation, or caveats on land titles, and still decides to build on flood-prone land, then that person should bear the consequences of his/her actions and not be eligible for disaster assistance. However this is difficult to enforce and is reliant on strong political will at the time of announcing disaster assistance.
Insurance is an option that needs to be considered, but is probably not feasible in many developing countries at this time.

Land-use planning
Branch of physical and socio-economic planning that determines the means and assesses the values or limitations of various options in which land is to be utilized, with the corresponding effects on different segments of the population or interests of a community taken into account in resulting decisions.
Land-use planning involves studies and mapping, analysis of environmental and hazard data, formulation of alternative land-use decisions and design of a long-range plan for different geographical and administrative scales.
Land-use planning can help to mitigate disasters and reduce risks by discouraging high-density settlements and construction of key installations in hazard-prone areas, control of population density and expansion, and in the sitting of service routes for transport, power, water, sewage and other critical facilities.

Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
Studies undertaken in order to assess the effect on a specified environment of the introduction of any new factor, which may upset the current ecological balance.
EIA is a policy making tool that serves to provide evidence and analysis of environmental impacts of activities from conception to decision-making. It is utilized extensively in national programming and for international development assistance projects. An EIA must include a detailed risk assessment and provide alternatives solutions or options.
Environmental degradation The reduction of the capacity of the environment to meet social and ecological objectives, and needs.
Potential effects are varied and may contribute to an increase in vulnerability and the frequency and intensity of natural hazards.
Some examples: land degradation, deforestation, desertification, wild land fires, loss of biodiversity, land, water and air pollution, climate change, sea level rise and ozone depletion.
Effects of Deforestation?

There are a number of adverse effects of deforestation, such as:

Erosion of Soil: When forest areas are cleared, it results in exposing the soil to the sun, making it very dry and eventually, infertile, due to volatile nutrients such as nitrogen being lost. In addition, when there is rainfall, it washes away the rest of the nutrients, which flow with the rainwater into waterways. Because of this, merely replanting trees may not help in solving the problems caused by deforestation, for by the time the trees mature, the soil will be totally devoid of essential nutrients. Ultimately, cultivation in this land will also become impossible, resulting in the land becoming useless. Large tracts of land will be rendered permanently impoverished due to soil erosion.

Disruption of the Water Cycle: Trees contribute in a large way in maintaining the water cycle. They draw up water via their roots, which is then released into the atmosphere. A large part of the water that circulates in the ecosystem of rainforests, for instance, remains inside the plants. When these trees are cut down it results in the climate getting drier in that area.

Loss of Biodiversity: The unique biodiversity of various geographical areas is being lost on a scale that is quite unprecedented. Even though tropical rainforests make up just 6 percent of the surface area of the Earth, about 80-90 percent of the entire species of the world exist here. Due to massive deforestation, about 50 to 100 species of animals are being lost each day. The outcome of which is the extinction of animals and plants on a massive scale.

Flooding and Drought: One of the vital functions of forests is to absorb and store great amounts of water quickly when there are heavy rains. When forests are cut down, this regulation of the flow of water is disrupted, which leads to alternating periods of flood and then drought in the affected area.

Climate Change: It is well known that global warming is being caused largely due to emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, what is not known quite as well is that deforestation has a direction association with carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. Trees act as a major storage depot for carbon, since they absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which is then used to produce carbohydrates, fats, and proteins that make up trees. When deforestation occurs, many of the trees are burnt or they are allowed to rot, which results in releasing the carbon that is stored in them as carbon dioxide. This, in turn, leads to greater concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Change in all above stated condition resulted Flooding, swat and northern area was riched in forest but due to lack of knowledge and information amongst local people about importance of these natural forest , caused serious consequences for them and rest of the country in shape of floods.
Forecast Definite statement or statistical estimate of the occurrence of a future event
This term is used with different meanings in different disciplines.
Geological hazard Natural earth processes or phenomena that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.
Geological hazard includes internal earth processes or tectonic origin, such as earthquakes, geological fault activity, tsunamis, volcanic activity and emissions as well as external processes such as mass movements: landslides, rockslides, rock falls or avalanches, surfaces collapses, expansive soils and debris or mud flows.
Geological hazards can be single, sequential or combined in their origin and effects.
Geographic information systems (GIS) Analysis that combine relational databases with spatial interpretation and outputs often in form of maps. A more elaborate definition is that of computer programmes for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, analyzing and displaying data about the earth that is spatially referenced.
Geographical information systems are increasingly being utilized for hazard and vulnerability mapping and analysis, as well as for the application of disaster risk management measures.

Geographic information systems
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provide a computer-based information and manipulation system useful in support off low forecasting and emergency response. Information from a variety of sources and scales can be combined as a series of layers, provided that the information can be identified in terms of the common denominator of location. For example, information on vegetative cover can be combined with soils and land slope information to estimate infiltration rates for forecasting purposes. Similarly layers of utility, land use, flood plain delineation, and structures information can help in the development and updating of emergency response plans. A good representation of the basin topography is an important asset in flood forecasting, emergency action and mitigation. A digital elevation model (DEM) or digital terrain model (DTM) for the basin should be developed as part of any GIS. Technologies exist that enable the construction of a "seamless best available" DEM. In other words the DEM is constructed from whatever topographic information is available. Parts of the basin or certain features may be very accurate while others may be quite basic. The DEM can be improved with time. The development of inexpensive global position indicators has made GIS information easier to obtain. For example, data network sites, buildings or physical features can now be easily located with precision and at low cost. Land use, vegetative cover or soils information is also easier to assemble. Mapping Maps of areas at risk from natural disasters are valuable information and communication tools. They can be used for a wide variety of purposes ranging from flood plain delineation, zoning and land use planning to presentation of information at public meetings. Zoning maps, however, are static and may require updating with time as changes occur. For static information, such as the delineation of the flood-prone area, frequent updating is not required, and maps are a useful reference tool for a wide variety of users. Visualization techniques.

GIS and other computer-based information
Systems allow for a wide range of presentational material to be easily generated and tailored to the target audience. Three dimensional displays zoom and scan, and rotational techniques can be combined with other informational material such as pictures, overheads or slides. As an example, a GIS flood inundation map can be generated based on hydraulic model derived information. The map can be conveyed to residents in the flood plain and is useful for depicting the probable impact of the approaching flood.

Public awareness
The processes of informing the general population, increasing levels of consciousness about risks and how people can act to reduce their exposure to hazards. This is particularly important for public officials in fulfilling their responsibilities to save lives and property in the event of a disaster.
Public awareness activities foster changes in behavior leading towards a culture of risk reduction. This involves public information, dissemination, education, radio or television broadcasts, use of printed media, as well as, the establishment of information centre and networks and community and participation action

Measures and strategies for flood mitigation

Watershed Management
The water storage effect of vegetation, soil, shallow groundwater, wetlands and drainage as a direct impact on the flood level in downstream areas. Each of these storage retain certain quantities of water for various periods of time and can influence the timing of tributary flows and hence their contribution to a flood event. The storage effect can be likened to a sponge and is dependent on the antecedent conditions and the magnitude of the flood. the impacts of land-use changes on flood events can be both positive and negative, so predictions are hard to make for a specific watershed. Generally the removal of forest and other natural cover, and the conversion of land to agricultural uses, compacts the soil and reduces infiltration rates, leading to higher flood peaks. Deforestation is believed to have been a significant cause of the catastrophic flooding in the Indus River. Deforestation and other land-use practices can also lead to greater incidences of landslides and mud flows. Natural water storage is also generally reduced due to the gradual loss of organic material and soil erosion, once an area is converted to agriculture. Additionally, natural vegetation may transpire moisture to the atmosphere at a greater rate than replacement crops, thereby affecting both the amount of storage available in the soil and the amount of local rainfall. Drainage of wetlands and marshes contributes directly to changes in the timing of runoff, the amount of natural storage in the basin, and the vulnerability of the channel to the erosive forces of water.

Climate Variability and Change
There is growing concern about the impact of changing concentrations of greenhouse gases on our current climate system and the ramifications these changes might have on water availability. It is believed that further alterations of atmospheric chemistry could lead to increased abnormalities in climatic parameters such as temperature, precipitation and evaporate transpiration and might well lead to more dramatic impacts on stream flow patterns and extreme conditions. Some analyses of stream flow over the last 30 to 60 years have shown evidence of increasing and decreasing trends in the low flows, with marked geographic patterns to these trends. Thus far, there has been less evidence of trends in annual flood data for natural Indus basin. However based on scenarios of projected future atmospheric conditions, it is anticipated that there might be more pronounced alterations to the stream flow regimes in various regions of the world. If these projections are correct, more severe or extreme conditions may prevail.

Climate impacts on extreme events
A number of studies on the potential impacts of climate change on flooding have been carried out as part of the work of the Inter governmental Panel on Climate Change These studies indicate potential future increases in flood peaks of approximately 15% in temperate zones due to increased storm activity and overall increases in depth of precipitation. At this point in time, it is not possible to predict potential increases in flood peaks due to climate change for specific basins with the degree of certainty necessary for their incorporation into the design and planning process. However, the freeboard on levees and other works can probably accommodate the potential modifications in extremes due to climate change through modified operating procedures of control structures.

Development of Policies, Strategies and Plans
The development of policies, strategies and plans to combat the risks associated with natural disasters should be based on a comprehensive risk assessment. This requires an integrated approach whereby a wide range of mitigation measures should be considered. For example, mitigation activities such as hazardous land mapping (i.e., flood plain mapping plus landslide and mudslide-prone areas) should be designed so that considerations of other disaster types lead to sounder overall land use plans. In essence, there would be very little purpose in moving people and goods from one risk zone to another, especially if the other hazard is equally or more apt to occur under the prevailing conditions such as torrential rain. Within this overall process, full consideration needs to be given to the social, environmental and economic impacts of policy and programme development. This chapter provides guidance on aspects of flood hazards that need to be considered within the overall planning process. The aspects contain adhere in are meant to complement other materials in this guide, such as the development of a flow forecasting and warning system, which are important tools within the range of options to be considered.

Basin wide planning
Reduction of flood losses must be considered, using the basin as the basic planning unit. It is absolutely essential to have knowledge of water uses, diversions, storage, and management practices in all parts of the basin, as well as the antecedent, present, and forecasted meteorological and hydrological conditions. Tran’s boundary basins represent a special challenge in that international collaboration is required. In such cases consideration should be given to expanding existing bilateral or regional arrangements for exchange of data and information and to the negotiation of treaties or agreements.
Agreements can also include the option of projects of mutual advantage funded by all the countries involved, including construction of flood storage or other flood preventative measures at the most advantageous locations in the basin as a whole.

All planned development, whether in the floodplain or not, must consider the implications for its drainage on flood risk. In particular, this applies to development of green field sites, for which the significant increase in impermeable area can considerably increase runoff volumes and rates from the site. A strategic approach to the drainage of new urban areas is likely to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the drainage and flood risk management proposals, and reduce the flood risks associated with new development.

Integrated Drainage Strategy
Opportunities for developing an Integrated Water or Drainage Management Strategy across development site boundaries is recommended, and ideally a catchment-led approach should be adopted.
Experience shows that integrated approaches often lead to a more efficient and reliable surface water management system at a comparatively lower cost because it enables a wider variety of potential flood mitigation options to be used, and a better overall design can be achieved. Integrated management of surface water has potential benefits in addition to flood risk, and can include improved water quality through the use of SuDS and a reduction of water demand through grey water recycling / rain water harvesting. Once the preferred development area(s) have been selected, consideration should be given at an early stage to the best way to manage drainage to maximize benefits.

Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS)
PPS 25 requires that new development does not exacerbate flood risks elsewhere, which means there is a need to control drainage and runoff to ensure there are no increases in overland flow as a result of the development. Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) are designed to mitigate the propensity of development to generate additional runoff. When considered at the planning stage, they can be implemented to reduce flood risk to downstream areas.
“The philosophy of SuDS is to replicate as closely as possible the natural drainage from a site before development… so reducing the impact on receiving watercourses. This requires a reduction in the rate and volume of runoff from developments...

Guidelines for Reducing Flood Losses
The community and individuals must have a good understanding of what is expected of them. A good example would be evacuation. Information that defines evacuation routes, identifies emergency shelters, and specifies actions to be taken before leaving, such as removing mobile equipment and removing personal goods and furniture, must be available in advance. Preparedness and response plans detailed response plans need to be prepared in advance and reviewed with all of the key agencies and players. There is no one" common" response plan as the linkages will be different in each case. The response to ataxic chemical spill is very different from the response to a major fire or flood. Not only must the plan be in writing and available to those that will be responding, but also it must be continually reviewed and updated. Some of the key pieces of information are: which agency and individuals have the specific responsibility; whom to contact for expert advice; and where to go for information on backup communication systems. This information is constantly changing and needs to be verified periodically and tested in exercises Multiple contact points need to be established as the emergency may occur on a week end, holiday, or after regular business hours. Mechanisms for coordination must be included in the plan, including the structure of response committees, where they will meet and sources of resource information available to them. Often this takes the form of something equivalent to a "war room" where maps, plans, other material and support staff are available immediately. Inventory of resources A key component of any emergency preparedness plan is an inventory of resources that can be accessed. In the case of flooding this could include items such as emergency vehicles, buses and trucks, earthmoving equipment, pumps, plastic, plywood, emergency generators, supplies of gravel and sand, sandbags, and mobile communications equipment. The inventory should also include access to expertise such as surveyors, levee or slope stability experts, forecasting specialists, the media and community leaders. Emergency shelters should be designated in advance, their individual capacity defined and plans made for obtaining sufficient supplies of water, food, medicine and medical/social assistance. If local resources are not sufficient, then the availability circle must be expanded to include adjacent communities, the provincial/state and national government levels. Triggering emergency action Advance warning is the key to effective response. It is possible to set up a series of warnings in advance of an actual extreme storm event that can be used as alerts. This could start with long-term climatologic forecasts or more immediate hurricane forecasts that identify potential danger. For specific basins an alert could be issued based on antecedent precipitation and rainfall intensity data in advance of an actual flood forecast. A more detailed forecast would then be issued when all of the data and information required to make a flood forecast became available.
The emergency response to such alerts is very site-specific and should be included in the plan. If, for example, emergency actions such as temporary levees are necessary, then the work could begin based on an alert rather than the specific forecast. The same may hold for emergency evacuation. The response to an extreme flood forecast should be immediate, and with no un certainty as to what actions and activities should betaken. The public expects governments to act quickly and in a professional manner under such circumstances. Community leaders should be visible, informed and active right from the start. Training and response exercises Emergency response teams need to be well trained in advance and their skills constantly upgraded. Once the disaster strikes, it is too late to train or try to find missing expertise.
Trained staff should know their responsibilities, have immediate access to response plans and other critical information, and already have built a working relationship with colleagues in other organizations.
The only meaningful way to test response plans is to carry out periodic emergency exercises. These exercises are meant to simulate real emergency situations and test all aspects of the plan. Costs are significant but have real payback in an actual emergency. Often critical gaps are identified and appropriate backup strategies developed as part of the exercise.

Advance preparation
Assuming that there is advance warning of a major storm event, a number of steps can be taken to increase readiness. Such steps include: construction of temporary flood protection works; placing emergency response teams on high alert; distribution of critical materials such as stockpiled sandbags to targeted locations; and preparation of emergency shelters and hospitals prepared for occupation.
The population at risk can be informed of what is expected of them in the actuality of an extreme event. As the event becomes more certain, actions such as evacuation of people, goods and machinery can begin. Even if the event is not as extreme as predicted, these preparations help test emergency response plans and inform the public as to the nature of natural hazards.
Media and public information sessions help set the stage as well. The media are key players in the link between public officials and the public. It helps if they are familiar with the terminology used in warnings and forecasts and know whom to contact for more detailed information during an actual flood event.

After the flood event
The emergency response does not end with the event, but continues through cleanup and resettlement stages. People will want to know what assistance will be made available, who is responsible, and how to go about seeking that assistance. Senior levels of government should develop clearly defined response policies and programmes in advance. In the absence of such policies, the response is often ad hoc, politically and emotionally motivated, and sets precedents that are not wise in the longer run.

Development of Policies, Strategies and Plans
The development of policies, strategies and plans to combat the risks associated with natural disasters should be based on a comprehensive risk assessment. This requires an integrated approach whereby a wide range of mitigation measures should be considered. For example, mitigation activities such as hazardous land mapping (i.e., flood plain mapping plus landslide and mudslide-prone areas) should be designed so that considerations of other disaster types lead to sounder overall land use plans. In essence, there would be very little purpose in moving people and goods from one risk zone to another, especially if the other hazard is equally or more apt to occur under the prevailing conditions such as torrential rain. Within this overall process, full consideration needs to be given to the social, environmental and economic impacts of policy and programme development. This chapter provides guidance on aspects of flood hazards that need to be considered within the overall planning process. The aspects contained herein are meant to complement other materials in this guide, such as the development of a flow forecasting and warning system, which are important tools within the range of options to be considered. Basin wide planning Reduction of flood losses must be considered, using the basin as the basic planning unit. It is absolutely essential to have knowledge of water uses, diversions, storage, and management practices in all parts of the basin, as well as the antecedent, present, and forecasted meteorological and hydrological conditions.

The biggest challenge for Flood Preparedness Planning is the under lying capacities of the National, Provincial and district authorities as well as the lack of resources to under take implementation of the priority activities. In most case, local resources and capacities are often overlooked, thus relying too much upon external assistance. The linkages between disaster management and the national and local socio-economic development processes are most often ignored, resulting in re-creation of risks in already flood prone communities. For a successful flood preparedness planning, it is imperative to learn from the experiences and best practices for greater collaboration and information sharing to enhance the synergy and to extend the resource base for more effective implementation of flood preparedness programs. It is also important to establish and integrate FPP within the overall developmental plan for securing resources for better implementation.

These guidelines are developed by me to help Government of Pakistan and other organizations working for flood victims in Pakistan.

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very helpful.
By: imtiaz ahmed, karachi on Sep, 16 2010
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this much big article..................
By: Arzu, Uae on Sep, 15 2010
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